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Personal finance chapter 13 investing in bonds vocabulary activities

personal finance chapter 13 investing in bonds vocabulary activities

Getting the books Personal Finance Chapter 3 Vocab now is not type of inspiring Investing in Stocks & Bonds Chapter Investing in Mutual Funds. Chapter 1: The Importance of Personal Finance Chapter 2: Financial Chapter Investment Fundamentals Chapter Investing in Stocks and Bonds. circumstances. Debt Financing. Issuing bonds and other kinds of debt instruments to finance agency activities in service to the public. Debt Service. TRADING IN FOREX TUTORIAL FREE

Investment returns are quoted as an annual percentage of the amount invested, the rate of return. For a bond, that rate is the yield. Yield is expressed in two ways: the current yield and the yield to maturity. You can calculate the current yield by looking at the coupon for the year as a percentage of your investment or the current price, which is the market price of the bond.

The idea of the current yield is to give you a quick look at your immediate returns your return for the next year. In contrast, the yield to maturity YTM is a measure of your return if you bought the bond and held it until maturity, waiting to claim the face value.

You will find bond yield-to-maturity calculators online, and many financial calculators have the formulas preprogrammed. Over the time until maturity, the bond returns coupons plus a gain. Its yield to maturity is close to 4. Bond prices—their market values—have an inverse relationship to the yield to maturity. As the price goes down, the yield goes up, and as the price goes up, the yield goes down. Thus, the only way a bond can have a higher rate of return is to have a lower price in the first place.

The yield to maturity is directly related to interest rates in general, so as interest rates increase, bond yields increase and bond prices fall. As interest rates fall, bond yields fall and bond prices increase. Chart This yield holds if you hold the bond until maturity, but you may sell the bond at any time. When you sell the bond before maturity, you may have a gain or a loss, since the market value of the bond may have increased or decreased since you bought it.

That gain or loss would be part of your return along with the coupons you have received over the holding period, or the period of time that you held the bond. Your holding period yield is the annualized rate of return that you receive depending on how long you have held the bond, its gain or loss in market value, and the coupons you received in that period. Your holding period yield would be close to 5. The risk that the company will be unable to make its payments is default risk—the risk that it will default on the bond.

There is a risk, however, that when you go to reinvest the coupon, you will not find another investment opportunity that will pay as high a return because interest rates and yields have fallen. This is called reinvestment risk. Your coupons are the amount you thought they would be, but they are not worth as much as you expected because you cannot earn as much from them.

If interest rates and bond yields have dropped, your fixed-rate bond, which is paying a coupon that is now higher than other bonds, has become more valuable. Its market price has risen. Reinvestment risk is one facet of interest rate risk, which arises from the fundamental relationship between bond values and interest rates.

Interest rate risk is the risk that a change in prevailing interest rates will change bond value—that interest rates will rise and the market value of the bond will fall. If interest rates fell, the bond value would increase, which the investor would not see as a risk. Another threat to the value of your coupons and principal repayment is inflation. Inflation risk is the risk that your coupons and principal repayment will not be worth as much as you thought, because inflation has decreased the purchasing power or the value of the dollars you receive.

In general, the longer the term to maturity, the riskier the bond. The longer the term is, the greater the probability that the bond will be affected by a change in interest rates, a period of inflation, or a damaging business cycle. In general, the lower the coupon rate and the smaller the coupon, the more sensitive the bond will be to a change in interest rates.

More of your return is deferred until maturity, which also makes it more sensitive to interest rate risk. A bond with a larger coupon provides more liquidity, over the term of the bond, and less exposure to risk. Investors avoid reinvestment risk since the only return—and reinvestment opportunity—comes when the principal is returned at maturity.

The attraction of a zero is that it can be bought for a very low price. As a bond investor, you can make better decisions if you understand how the characteristics of bonds affect their risks and yields as you use those yields to compare and choose bonds. Yield Curve Interest rates affect bond risks and bond returns. If you plan to hold a bond until maturity, interest rates also affect reinvestment risk. If you plan to sell the bond before maturity, you face interest rate risk or the risk of a loss of market value.

When you invest in bonds, then, you want to be able to forecast future interest rates. Investors can get a sense of how interest rates are expected to change in the future by studying the yield curve, a graph that compares the terms of the yields for bonds of different maturities. The yield curve illustrates the term structure of interest rates, or the relationship of interest rates to time.

Usually, the yield curve is upward sloping—that is, long-term rates are higher than short-term rates. Long-term rates indicate expected future rates. If the economy is expanding, future interest rates are expected to be higher than current interest rates, because capital is expected to be more productive in the future.

Future interest rates will also be higher if there is inflation because lenders will want more interest to make up for the fact that the currency has lost some of its purchasing power. A flat yield curve indicates that future interest rates are expected to be about the same as current interest rates or that capital will be about as productive in the economy as it is now. A downward-sloping yield curve shows that future interest rates are expected to be lower than current rates.

This is often interpreted as a signal of a recession, because capital would be less productive in the future if the economy were less productive then. The yield curve is not perfectly smooth; it changes every day as bonds trade and new prices and new yields are established in the bond markets. It is a widely used indicator of interest rate trends, however. It can be useful to know the broad trends in interest rates that the market sees. For your bond investments, an upward-sloping yield curve indicates that interest rates will go up, which means that bond yields will go up but bond prices will go down.

If you are planning to sell your bond in that period of rising interest rates, you may be selling at a loss. Because of their known coupon and face value, many investors use bonds to invest funds for a specific purpose.

For example, suppose you have a child who is eight years old and you want her to be able to go to university in ten years. You might invest in bonds that have ten years until maturity. However, if you invest in bonds that have twenty years until maturity, they will have a higher yield all else being equal , so you could invest less now.

You could buy the twenty-year bonds but plan to sell them before maturity for a price determined by what interest rates are in ten years when you sell them. If the yield curve indicates that interest rates will rise over the next ten years, then you could expect your bond price to fall, and you would have a loss when you sell the bond, which would take away from your returns.

In general, rising interest rates mean losses for bondholders who sell before maturity, and falling interest rates mean gains for bondholders who sell before maturity. Unless you are planning to hold bonds until maturity, the yield curve can give you a sense of whether you are more likely to have a gain or loss. Bond returns can be measured by yields. There is a direct relationship between interest rates and bond yields. There is an inverse relationship between bond yields and bond prices market values.

There is an inverse relationship between bond prices market values and interest rates. The yield curve illustrates the term structure of interest rates, showing yields of bonds with differing maturities and the same default risk. The purpose of a yield curve is to show expectations of future interest rates. How do you buy bonds? What coupon rate were you getting? When was the maturity date, and how much did you get then? What was the current value of the bond at that time?

What does it mean for a bond to be trading above par? If you held the bond for ten years, what cash flows did you receive? Would you have reinvested in the bond when it matured, or would you have sold it and why? Study the other corporate bonds listed in the Investopedia example of a bond table. Where will you find bond tables? What will you compare in bond tables? What do these data tell you?

For each search factor, how would the information assist you in making decisions about including bonds in your investment portfolio? Summarize strategies to achieve bond diversification. Define and compare matching strategies. Explain life cycle investing and bond strategy. Bonds provide more secure income for an investment portfolio, while stocks provide more growth potential. When you include bonds in your portfolio, you do so to have more income and less risk than you would have with just stocks.

Bonds also diversify the portfolio. Because debt is so fundamentally different from equity, debt markets and equity markets respond differently to changing economic conditions. Diversification Strategies If your main strategic goal of including bonds is diversification, you can choose an active or passive bond selection strategy. As with equities, an active strategy requires individual bond selection, while a passive strategy involves the use of indexing, or investing through a broadly diversified bond index fund or mutual fund in which bonds have already been selected.

The advantage of the passive strategy is its greater diversification and relatively low cost. The advantage of an active strategy is the chance to create gains by finding and taking advantage of market mispricings. An active strategy is difficult for individual investors in bonds, however, because the bond market is less transparent and less liquid this applies mostly to corporate bonds, not government bonds than the stock market.

If your main strategic goal of including bonds is to lower the risk of your portfolio, you should keep in mind that bond risk varies. Another way to look at the effect of default risk on bond prices is to look at spreads. A spread is the difference between one rate and another. With bonds, the spread generally refers to the difference between one yield to maturity and another. Spreads are measured and quoted in basis points.

A basis point is one one-hundredth of a per cent, or 0. The most commonly quoted spread is the difference between the yield to maturity for a Treasury bond and a corporate bond with the same term to maturity. Treasury bonds are considered to have no default risk because it is unlikely that the Canadian government will default. Treasuries are exposed to reinvestment, interest rate, and inflation risks, however.

Corporate bonds are exposed to all four types of risk. I liked the "themes" in each of the 5 sections of the book. Some of the chapters were very brief. Instead of the details provided in each Instead of the details provided in each section, the authors could have provided relevant content with the chapter. Additionally, in an introductory personal finance course it may not be necessary to give theoretical details. I teach this course from a practical, skill building approach. I appreciated the interconnectedness of the content through the "key takeaways" and "exercises" that were given after each sub topic within the chapter.

However, the links within the chapter were broken and the references to the articles and other content was obsolete. Content Accuracy The content is accurate. I did not observe any errors. The content needs to be updated to make it relevant. Clarity rating: 5 The text is lucid, and is written in a reader friendly prose.

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McGraw-Hill has no control over and is not responsible for the content or accessibility of any linked website. Skip to main content Sign In. Professional International About Get Support. Get Support. There are currently no items in your shopping cart. View Cart. My Account Details Sign Out. If students make wise financial decisions, life can become a more joyous experience. On the other hand, if students make bad decisions, life may not turn out so well.

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You have the to install program, are experiencing timeouts, potentially malicious or this Agreement. Business Flashcard Maker: billy allman 44 Cards —. Sample Decks: Personal finance , Accounting. Commerce Flashcard Maker: michael wu Cards —. Sample Decks: Chapter 1: social basis of power, Chapter 2: character, court and faves, Chapter 3: finance.

Sample Decks: Personal rule - Finance. Sample Decks: personal business and finance, Learning Aim D, lab. Entrance Exams. Professional Certifications. Foreign Languages. Fine Arts. Random Knowledge. Capital Markets. Corporate Finance. Some information in the book is outdated. This is one of the issues with writing a textbook - the authors will have to keep up the content. The book could be updated to reflect new changes in the tax law.

Some of the descriptions are very short, like the section on closing costs of a home, or how to calculate your monthly payment. Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less. Chapters almost seem too short. Some content could be updated due to changes in the tax code, etc. Reviewed by Dr. The text covers all necessary components of personal finance. The text flows in a cohesive manner that should make the student experience more fulfilling.

The textbook is relevant to personal finance at this time. The text provides a good foundation to aid students in making sound financial decisions. This text is very comparable to the text I have used from Cengage. The chapters are in a different order, but I understand why it is written this way. The chapters build on themselves in a comprehendible order.

The textbook is presented in a fashion that builds on financial information to provide a thorough knowledge of personal finance for the student. This is a wonderful open access textbook for personal finance professors to solely use or use along with their current textbook for additional information, examples, problems, etc.

This book covers everything that I cover in my personal finance and financial planning courses, with one additional chapter related to careers, which is an interesting addition. I would have liked to see a section dedicated to paying for college I would have liked to see a section dedicated to paying for college.

The topic of investing in education is sprinkled throughout the text but is not in its own section. Financing education is as important as buying a house or car, which each have their own sections, so it would have been good to see that as a stand-alone section. I don't see an index or a glossary for the full text.

Also, I'd like to see a section on FinTech and the use of online tools. They want to better understand these offerings and the pros and cons associated with the various savings, money transferring and investment apps available today. The basics of sound financial management don't change much over time, however, tools, tax tables, interest rates, and the stock market change rapidly.

For example, this book does not address the fintech apps that students are using for investing, transferring money to friends and family, and saving money. This omission makes the book less applicable to certain populations, such as my college-aged students. Also, the majority of the hyperlinks are broken.

The writing could be cleaned up to improve conciseness. It is wordy. Definitions are given for technical concepts, which is a plus. A glossary of these terms would have been nice to have. I like the layout, with learning objectives, key takeaways, and homework exercises provided for each chapter. Yes, I can see how I could easily reorder this book to match up with my syllabi, and use separate sections of the book for each of my classes.

Each section can stand on its own. The order is fine. It makes sense to start with learning the basics of budgeting and financial planning Chapters , followed by the chapters on getting what you want Chapters The last chapter on career planning is an interesting addition to this book. It is the only chapter that I wouldn't typically cover in my personal finance classes.

In general, the interface is fine. It would be nice to have the ability to click on the figures in order to see them better. I can use the browser zoom, but it isn't as user friendly as I'd like it to be. I didn't note any issues with the choice of scenarios or names of characters potentially making students feel uneasy.

However, a wider variety of character names could make more students feel more included. For example, could Alice become Tanisha, and Mark become Jose for the next iteration of the book? While this is a great book for understanding the fundamental concepts of personal finance, a reboot is necessary to clean up the broken links and to update the content to include advances in FinTech and recent updates in legislation.

The important areas of personal finance are covered, though in some cases they are covered more extensively than a beginning personal finance book maybe ought to. I saw no glossary or index. Comprehensiveness rating: 2 see less. Most of the content is based on tried and true personal financial principles that will last.

However, personal income tax is an area that needs updating rather frequently because of legislative changes to the tax code. This text has not been updated in almost a decade, and so will fall short in this area. As an introductory finance text targeted to an undergraduate without any background in economics, the text is full of economic jargon with little or no definitions or examples.

Though the terms are accurately used, they will most likely confuse the target audience. Examples of this include micro, macro, capital, assets, inflation, deflation all with no definitions, index, or glossary. Information is broken up into digestible segments. It is readily divisible into smaller reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course.

I feel Chapter 5 Budgeting should have been Chapter 3, but the order of topics covered is acceptable. This book does an okay job at presenting personal finance…and does it for free. This text is the most comprehensive on this subject matter as any text I've seen to date. It contains more than enough of what is needed to cover a comprehensive course on personal finance. In this case, more is always better as any teacher would In this case, more is always better as any teacher would prefer to remove sections rather than look for supplemental information.

With this text you will have more than you need to teach a comprehensive course on this subject matter. This book is sufficiently accurate in its text but has some failings in its links, references and homework assignments. Some links don't work any longer and need to be removed or updated. However, that is not a hindrance to the validity and use of this text for a complete and comprehensive course on personal finance. This book is mostly relevant but as stated in the accuracy section above, there are links and references that are no longer valid.

The information in the text will stand the test of time but the links, references and homework assignments need to be updated and improved. The clarity of this text is superb. The language is easy to read and the chapters and section breaks are well placed. The consistency of the chapters are perfect. Every chapter has learning objectives followed by the lesson lecture and finishes with key takeaways and home exercises.

This format is easy to follow and flows comfortably. As mentioned in the consistency section, the format flow is excellent and easy to parse. This is an easy read and the suggested module groupings are logical. The organization of this book is logical and flows with ease. The table of contents and preface are helpful and practical. The suggestions are a nice enhancement to the natural construction of a course on personal finance using the text of this book.

I found nothing offensive even in the most subtle ways of possible interpretation. Many various examples are used and contain no apparent prejudices. Again I want to mention that this text is the most comprehensive on this subject matter as any text I've seen to date. I would highly recommend it to be used by any instructor teaching a course on personal finance.

It is comprehensive and flows well. This is by far the most comprehensive personal finance text I have evaluated! While it does not have an index or glossary, definitions are clearly defined within chapters, and the table of contents is detailed enough to find the topic you are While it does not have an index or glossary, definitions are clearly defined within chapters, and the table of contents is detailed enough to find the topic you are looking for in the book.

This text does an excellent job combining economic, business, finance, and consumer topics to thoroughly explain personal finance topics. The only topics I felt that needed more detailed explanations were auto, home, and disability insurance. I was very impressed with the author's work, as it also includes discussion of behavioral and emotional aspects of personal finance.

Overall, I did not find any errors in the text. It does need some updating for the tax, retirement, and estate laws, as it was last updated with laws. But very little effort is needed to make the information current. This text has staying power. While some personal finance topics, such as tax, retirement, and estate need to be brought up to date with current numbers, it would take very little effort on the part of the instructor to update that content.

I was impressed that the authors clearly thought these updates through, as it would only require updating images to current data. The book is clearly written, except for some concepts that may be more difficult for non-business students to understand. I feel the text is geared more toward business students who would be familiar with some of the terminology in the text from other courses. The text is consistent throughout as far as depth of coverage for each topic and appropriate ordering of chapters.

I would suggest moving the last chapter, on careers to the beginning. I would also suggest a little more coverage of the insurance topics, but the graphics are excellent in the text, and the content is superior to those of "revenue generating" textbooks. The text has clearly defined sections, with excellent learning objectives, takeaways, and exercises for EACH section within the chapter.

Very impressed with the organization of the text and application of material in exercises. The topics are presented in a logical order, with the exception of Career Planning. However, most personal finance texts do place Career Planning at the end. To me, discussion of career planning makes more sense earlier in the semester, as the student's career choice is going to impact their overall financial plan.

The textbook is easy to navigate, with buttons at the top to skip back to the previous section, go to the Table of Contents, or skip ahead to the next section. The graphs and images were all clear and concise. It was easy to read, with no interface issues. Examples provided in the text did not mention race or ethnicity and were not offensive in any way. A variety of financial situations were presented in case examples, and did not overly simplify the financial conditions a person might experience.

As students come from diverse economic backgrounds, I did not find the examples to favor lower socioeconomic status or higher socioeconomic status individuals. The text covers all relevant subject areas and has a good table of contents, with links provided to subsections within each chapter. If anything, the text is too much for some courses to cover in one semester - but as an instructor I would rather If anything, the text is too much for some courses to cover in one semester - but as an instructor I would rather decide what to skip rather than not have enough content.

I like that behavioral finance is included, and career information is included. For the most part, the book is accurate. Also, federal estate tax numbers are still from , and has significantly changed since then. I would either leave that part out or make sure someone updates it every year. Some of the comments here overlap with the one above. I found a web link that is no longer good, and estate tax numbers are out of date. Also, wills and trusts are talked about, but there's no mention of living wills or powers of attorney for financial and health care matters.

Those things are relevant for everyone, and do not include numbers that would need updating. I like that there's a whole chapter on consumer strategies, including common scams and how to avoid them. Buying a car gets a section, and buying a home gets very thorough, well thought out coverage. I wish I would have had this resource when buying my first home. The text is written in plain English in a matter that is easy to understand.

Terms are defined and examples are provided. There are nice charts to organize some of the information. This aspect of the book is very well done. Learning objectives are listed at the start of each section, then content, and finally key takeaways and exercises at the end of every section. The format is predictable and easy to follow.

Also, as mentioned above, there's a table of contents. I don't see an index or glossary but I think needed information could be pinned down in this easy to follow format. Each section within a chapter is fairly short. There are not enormous blocks of text. The flow is nice and modules could be easily assigned in different orders and without having to assign the entire chapter.

This aspect of the text is very nicely done. The topics in the text are presented in a logical, clear fashion which is explained in the preface. Other than the one bad web link I did not try every single one , I did not notice any interface issues. A few images were small and could be enlarged. This text covers all the requisite material that you would find in other texts sold by the major publishers. As mentioned in other reviews, the. You can get A couple comments on the content: I do wish that the formula for present value was made more obvious - that it would stand out from the rest of the text in the same way future value is presented.

Also, while there is a considerable amount of information on risk, it is spread out through the text. Additionally, I would like to see a better discussion of how the deductibility of mortgage interest reduces the cost of housing. Finally, my course outcomes require that I talk about common financial scams and common personal financial mistakes, which are not really discussed in the text.

However, in all fairness, not many texts cover this topic. I did find a couple of typo type errors such as percentages presented in decimal form when the tables clearly labeled them as percentages. However, those were minor and infrequent. The text presents the material as such.

The areas that will bear monitoring are those dealing with tax laws and the evolving nature of health care and its benefits. I do like that the authors have placed URLs below tables that may change in the future, such as tax rates. I found the book easy to read and clear in its examples. I found the language of the text to be at the appropriate level for community college students.

In the online version, students can access different sections of the text very easily. However, the. As mentioned above, you can work through this by using "CNTRL f" but its very clunky and may not be an option for the student that is used to using a hard copy text. The topics are presented in a logical and clear way that makes sense. However, I almost never use a text in sequential order as I usually have a different way of presenting the material based upon my strengths and weaknesses as an instructor.

In the case of personal finance, I really like to lay a solid foundation with the concepts of time value of money and risk vs. This text presents a substantial amount of information on risk, its just spread out through many chapters. This book is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way.

However, I would not be considered a minority so I may not be as aware of those issues as others of a different race or cultural background. While I'm happy that the authors have posted a. The online version is much easier to use and navigate. Having said that, there is a ton of great material here to use in a personal finance class. The text is extremely comprehensive, including topics that would be relevant to both younger students just starting out with Personal Finance, as well as topics relevant to the older student who has some Personal Finance experience.

With 18 chapters included, the range of topics is broad enough that the instructor can pick and choose which topics to include and not run out of content. Graphical flowcharts make sense and are easy to follow. This text would be relevant for the foreseeable future, since the text is based on fundamental principles of Personal Finance that don't often materially change.

The text presents concepts in an easy to read way, without too much advanced terminology that an average student would struggle to understand. Concepts are presented using an unbiased tone, presenting pros and cons when applicable. Each chapter and chapter subsection are organized in the same way, maximizing the book's overall consistency. Students would easily get into a "rhythm" with the text, regardless of which chapters are assigned.

As I mentioned above, there are 18 chapters included No section is too long, which minimizes the risk that students lose interest. Additionally, each chapter sub-section is broken up with graphs, charts, Key Takeaways and Exercises, all in color and with lots of white-space to draw attention. The topics are presented in logical order. Instructors could easily structure a course starting with Chapter 1 and move through the chapters in order, and the course would make logical sense to the student.

No interface issues encountered. I downloaded the book to my tablet and had no issues opening the book, hyperlinking to chapters, etc. As mentioned, the book adopts a neutral tone of voice, free of bias that might be offensive to any racial or cultural group.

I appreciate the prompts in the Exercises sections to the student to reflect on the topic in their Personal Finance journals. In my course, I use the PFJ as an assessment tool, and students love having a comprehensive examination of their personal finance situation at the end of the term as a takeaway. This book covers a decent spectrum of topics in personal finance and financial planning, such as time value of money, risk, budgeting, tax planning, retirement planning, estate planning, insurance, investing, career planning, etc.

The topics are Two very important topics in finance, time value of money and risk, need to be covered in more depth. I suggest to split chapter 4 into two chapters — a chapter to cover time value of money and another to cover measuring and evaluating risk. These will help people make better decisions when it comes to buying a home and refinancing a mortgage. Excel is widely used in Business and Finance including in financial planning and analysis.

Including some Excel examples and exercises will help readers understand how personal finance can be managed and how financial planning can be done in Excel. There are some errors or typos in the text. For example, the mathematical formula of the present value PV and future value FV relationship on pages 85, 86 and 87 is not correctly presented. The t should be in the exponential position.

Present value is not necessarily what is worth today. Your current stock account balance is the future value. The content of this book is relevant and current. The key principles of personal finance and financial planning will not change much over time. Income tax rates and interest rates may change over time but these can be updated easily. The text is not very clear and even confusing in some places.

I think there are a lot of other factors involved than just time when discussing risks and uncertainties, opportunities and opportunity costs. The text is consistent in terms of terminology and framework. The terms use in each chapter are consistent across the chapter. There are some inconsistencies in table headings and the actual values. The fact that each chapter in this book is about pages long is a good sign of modularity.

The authors use a lot of tables and figures to make the text more appealing to read. The learning objectives at the beginning and the key takeaways at the end of each section remind the readers the key concepts in that section.

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Personal Finance: Class 5 - Investing

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