Category: Forex difference accounting finance

Автор: Moogugrel

Fiction hukum forex

fiction hukum forex

currency in a certain amount can reduce the occurrence of the crime of bribery. Therefore,. INTRAC through ML Committee. The maharaja and Zubeida had a son, Hukum Singh aka Tutu Bana, that film, recounting a true-to-life mystery shrouded in fiction. The opinion of many Islamic jurists is that dealing in Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies is not permissible or Haram. Unfortunately most of them don't even. ATLANTA VS 76ERS

See, for example, Exodus And the coming of the Prophet peace be on him who would relieve them of this burden was foretold to the Jews and Christians, who, as the Qur'an states He commands them what is right and forbids them what is evil; He makes lawful to them what is good and makes unlawful what is foul; He releases them from their burdens and from the yokes which were upon them These are not to be confused either with the existing Torah or Old Testament, or the four Gospels of the New Testament.

Accordingly, we know that in Islam things are prohibited only because they are impure or harmful. If something is entirely harmful it is haram, and if it is entirely beneficial it is halal; if the harm of it outweighs its benefit it is haram, while if its benefit outweighs its harm it is halal.

This principle is explained in the Qur'an in relation to wine and gambling: They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say O Prophet : In them is great sin and some benefit for human beings, but the sin is greater than the benefit Good things are those which moderate people acknowledge to be wholesome and which are approved by human beings in general without relation to the habits of a particular group. Allah Ta'ala says: They ask thee what is lawful to them as food. Say: Whatever is good is lawful to you What is required of a Muslim is simply to say, "We have heard and we shall obey.

Centuries passed, and then scientific research discovered the presence of parasites and deadly bacteria in its flesh. Yet even if scientific research had discovered nothing in pork, or if it had discovered much more than this, the Muslim would still continue to believe it to be unclean. People of earlier times merely knew that these were filthy acts, abhorrent to civilized taste and public manners. With the advancement of science, we now know that these "three abominable acts" are hazards to public health, as they are the root cause of the spread of such dangerous diseases as hookworm ankylostoma and bilharzia schistosomiasis.

Thus, as the light of knowledge penetrates more deeply and new discoveries are made, the beneficial aspects of the Islamic legislation relating to the lawful and the prohibited -in fact, the benefits of all its legal injunctions -become apparent to us. What is Halal Is Sufficient, While What is Haram Is Superfluous One of the beauties of Islam is that it has prohibited only such things as are unnecessary and dispersible, while providing alternatives which are better and which give greater ease and comfort to human beings.

This point has been explained by Ibn al-Qayyim: Allah has prohibited seeking omens by drawing lots but has provided the alternative of istikhara Islam teaches that if the Muslim faces a problem he should consult with others and seek guidance of Allah. The meaning of istikhara is to ask guidance from Allah in making a choice between two conflicting decisions.

For this there is a salat and a du'a supplication. He has prohibited usury but has encouraged profitable trade. He has prohibited gambling but has permitted betting on forms of competition which are useful for their the Muslims religious striving, such as horse or camel racing and competing in marksmanship. He has prohibited to men the wearing of silk but has given them the choice of other materials such as wool, linen, and cotton.

He has prohibited intoxicating drinks in order that they may enjoy other delicious drinks which are wholesome for the body and mind. And He has prohibited unclean food but provides alternative wholesome food. Rawdah al-Muhibbeen, p. Thus, when we survey the Islamic injunctions in their totality, we find that if Allah limits the choice of His servants in relation to some things, He provides them with a still wider range of more wholesome alternatives in relation to other things of a similar kind.

For assuredly Allah has no desire to make peoples' lives difficult, narrow, and circumscribed; on the contrary; He desires ease, goodness, guidance, and mercy for them, according to His saying: Allah desires to make clear to you and to guide you to the ways of the righteous people before you and to turn to you in mercy; and Allah is Knowing, Wise.

And Allah desires to lighten your burden, for man was created weak. Whatever Is Conducive to the Haram Is Itself Haram Another Islamic principle is that if something is prohibited, anything which leads to it is likewise prohibited. By this means Islam intends to block all avenues leading to what is haram. For example, as Islam has prohibited sex outside marriage, it has also prohibited anything which leads to it or makes it attractive, such as seductive clothing, private meetings and casual mixing between men and women, the depiction of nudity, pornographic literature, obscene songs, and so on.

Accordingly, Muslim jurists have established the criterion that whatever is conducive to or leads toward the haram is itself haram. A similar principle is that the sin of the haram is not limited only to the person who engages in it but extends to others who have supported him in this, materially or morally; each is held accountable according to his share.

For example, in the case of intoxicating drinks, the Prophet peace be on him cursed not only the one who drinks them but also the one who produces them, the one who serves them, the one to whom they are served, the one to whom the price of them is paid, etc. This point will be discussed again later. Again, in the matter of usury, the Prophet peace be on him cursed the one who pays it, the one to whom it is paid, the one who writes the contract, and the one who acts as a witness thereto.

Falsely Representing the Haram as Halal Is Prohibited Just as Islam has prohibited whatever leads toward the haram, it has also prohibited resorting to technical legalities in order to do what is haram by devious means and excuses inspired by Satan. It has reprimanded the Jews for resorting to such practices. The Prophet peace be on him said: "Do not do what the Jews did in order to technically legalize Allah's prohibitions by flimsy excuses.

The author says: "This was reported by 'Abdullah bin Battah on good authority, and al-Tirmidhi classifies a similar hadith as sahih. To get around this prohibition, they would dig ditches on Friday so that the fish would fall into them on Saturday, to be caught on Sunday.

Those who resort to rationalizations and excuses to justify their actions consider such practices to be permissible, but the jurists of Islam consider them haram, since Allah's purpose was to prevent them from hunting on the Sabbath, whether by direct or indirect means. Calling a haram thing by a name other than its own or changing its form while retaining its essence is a devious tactic, since obviously a change of name or of form is of no consequence as long as the thing and its essence remain unchanged.

Thus, when some people invent new terms in order to deal in usury or to consume alcohol, the sin of dealing in usury and drinking remains. As we read in the collections of ahadith, A group of people will make peoples' intoxication halal by giving it other names. Reported by Ahmad. A time will come when people will devour usury, calling it "trade. The Prophet peace be on him said, "Actions will be judged by intentions, and everyone will be recompensed according to what he intended.

Indeed, in Islam the routine matters of life and its mundane affairs are transformed into acts of worship and devotion to Allah by good intentions. Accordingly, if one eats food with the intention of sustaining life and strengthening his body in order that he may be able to carry out his obligations to his Creator and to other human beings, his eating and drinking are considered worship and devotion to Allah Ta'ala.

Again, if one enjoys sexual intimacy with his wife, desiring a child and seeking to keep himself and his wife chaste, it is considered an act of worship on his part, deserving of reward in the Hereafter. Concerning this the Prophet peace be on him said: When you satisfy your desire with your wife, it is counted for you as an act deserving of reward. Those who were listening to him said: Messenger of Allah, how can it be that one of us satisfies his desire and will then be rewarded for it?

The Prophet peace be on him replied: Would he not be sinful if he had satisfied it in a prohibited manner? Consequently, if he satisfies it in a permissible manner, there is a reward for him. Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim. He also said: Anyone who desires what is permissible from the world, keeping himself away from sins, working for the sake of his family, and taking care of his neighbor, will meet his Lord with a face shining like the full moon.

The text of the hadith was narrated by al-Tabarani. In this manner, whenever any permissible action of the believer is accompanied by a good intention, his action becomes an act of worship. But the case of the haram is entirely different; it remains haram no matter how good the intention, how honorable the purpose, or how lofty the aim may be. Islam can never consent to employing a haram means to achieve a praiseworthy end.

Indeed, it insists that not only the aim be honorable but also that the means chosen to attain it be pure. If someone accumulates wealth through usury, forgery, gambling, prohibited games, or in any other haram manner in order to build a mosque, establish a charitable foundation, or to do any other good work, the guilt of having done what is haram will not be lifted from hbecause of the goodness of his objective; in Islam good aims and intentions have no effect in lessening the sinfulness of what is haram.

This is what the Prophet peace be on him taught us when he said: Allah is good and does not accept anytbut good, and Allah has commanded the Believers, as He commanded His messengers, saying 'O you messengers! Eat of whatever is good and work righteousness. Indeed, I am aware of what you do. He also said, 'O you who believe! Eat of the good things which We provide for you.

The Prophet peace be on him then said, A man travels far, unkempt and dust-stained for hajj, umrah, or the like , raising his hands to the sky and saying , 'O Lord! O Lord! How then could his prayers be accepted? Reported by Muslim and al-Tirmidhi on the authority of Abu Hurairah. He also said: If anyone amasses wealth through haram means and then gives charity from it, there is no regard for him and the burden of sin remains.

Reported by Ibn Khazimah, Ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim on the authority of Abu Hurairah Again he said: If a person earns property through haram means and then gives charity, it will not be accepted by Allah ; if he spends it there will be no blessing on it; and if he leaves it behind at his death it will be his provision in the Fire.

Indeed, Allah Ta'ala does not obliterate one bad deed by another bad deed, but He cancels out a bad deed by a good deed. An unclean thing does not wipe away another unclean thing. Reported by Ahmad and others on the authority of Ibn Mas'ood. Indeed, He has made explicit what is halal and explained what is haram, as He says He has explained to you what He has made haram for you However, there is a gray area between the clearly halal and the clearly haram.

This is the area of what is doubtful. Some people may not be able to decide whether a particular matter is permissible or forbidden; such confusion may be due either to doubtful evidence or because of doubt concerning the applicability of the text to the particular circumstance or matter in question.

In relation to such matters, Islam considers it an act of piety for the Muslim to avoid doing what is doubtful in order to stay clear of doing something haram. This is similar to what was discussed earlier concerning the blocking of the avenues which lead to what is haram. Such a cautious approach, moreover, trains the Muslim to be farsighted in planning and increases his knowledge of affairs and people. The root of this principle is the saying of the Prophet peace be on him : The halal is clear and the haram is clear.

Between the two there are doubtful matters concerning which people do not know whether they are halal or haram. One who avoids them in order to safeguard his religion and his honor is safe, while if someone engages in a part of them he may be doing something haram, like one who grazes his animals near the hima the grounds reserved for animals belonging to the King which are out of bounds for others' animals ; it is thus quite likely that some of his animals will stray into it.

Truly, every king has a hima, and the hima of Allah is what He has prohibited. Reported by al-Bukhari' Muslim, and others; the narration is taken from al Tirmidhi. The Haram Is Prohibited to Everyone Alike In the Shari'ah of Islam the haram has universal applicability; here there is no such thing as that which is prohibited to a non-Arab but permitted to an Arab, nor anything which is restricted to a Black but allowed to a White.

For in Islam there are no privileged classes or individuals who, in the name of religion, can do whatever they please according to their whims. Muslims do not have any privilege of making something haram for others while it is lawful for themselves; this cannot be, for truly Allah is the Lord of all, and the Shari'ah of Islam is the guide for all. As an example, stealing is equally haram for the Muslim and the non-Muslim; the punishment for it is the same, regardless of the family or the origin of the thief.

The Prophet peace be on him firmly enforced this rule, proclaiming, "By Allah, if Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, were to steal, I would have her hand cut off. A case of theft was brought before the Prophet peace be on him involving two suspects, the one a Jew and the other a Muslim. Some relatives of the Muslim advanced circumstantial evidence to cast doubt on the Jew in order to save their man while he was, in fact, guilty.

The Prophet peace be on him was almost persuaded to believe that the Muslim was innocent. Then a revelation was sent down exposing the conspiracy, clearing the Jew of the crime and directing the Prophet peace be on him to establish justice without any bias: Indeed, We have sent down to thee the Book with the truth, so that thou mightest judge between the people as shown by Allah; then do not be an advocate for the treacherous, and seek forgiveness of Allah; indeed, Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

And do not plead on behalf of those who deceive themselves; indeed, Allah does not like the one who is treacherous and sinful. They may hide from men, but they cannot hide from Allah, for He is with them even when they hold, by night, discourse not pleasing to Him, and Allah encompasses what they do.

You are the ones who pleaded for them in the life of this world, but who will plead for them with Allah on the Day of Resurrection, or who will be their guardian? You may demand interest on a loan of a foreigner, but you must not demand interest from your brother, so that Yahweh your God may bless you in all your giving in the land you are to enter and make your own. The Qur'an also speaks about another similar tendency among the Jews, that of cheating others who are not of their race or faith without feeling anything wrong in it.

This is because they say: We have no duty toward the gentiles, but they utter a falsehood concerning Allah, and they know it. They have unquestionably uttered falsehood in what they have ascribed to Allah, for the law of Allah does not discriminate between one people and another, and insofar as cheating is concerned, Allah has condemned it through the tongue of all His messengers and prophets. With due apologies, we may say that this tendency to use a double standard, one for one's "brother" and another for a "foreigner" or outsider, is a characteristic of primitive ethics.

It can never be ascribed to a divinely revealed religion, for high morality -that is, true morality -is distinguishable by its universality and comprehensiveness and by its lack of a double standard. The distinction between us and primitive peoples is not in the existence or absence of a moral code but in the enlargement of the area of its application. As an example, such people also consider honesty as a praiseworthy quality, but they restrict its practice to the people of their own tribe.

When dealing with people from outside their tribe or clan, they see nothing wrong with cheating them, or in fact recommending or even requiring it. The author of The Story of Civilization writes, Almost all groups agree in holding other groups to be infer to themselves. The American Indians looked upon themselves as the chosen people, specially created by the Great Spirit as an uplifting example for mankind. Consequently, it seldom occurred to primitive man to extend to other tribes the moral restraints which he acknowledged in dealing with his own; he frankly conceived it to be the function of morals to give strength and coherence to his group against other groups.

Commandments and taboos applied only to the people of his tribe; with others, except when they were his guests, he might go as far as he dared Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, Simon and Schuster, New York, , vol. Accordingly, it has blocked the ways, apparent or hidden, leading to what is prohibited. Thus, what is conducive to the haram is itself haram, what assists in committing the haram is haram, any rationalization for engaging in the haram is haram, and so on, to the last of the principles which we have elucidated.

At the same time, Islam is not oblivious to the exigencies of life, to their magnitude, nor to human weakness and capacity to face them. It permits the Muslim, under the compulsion of necessity to eat a prohibited food in quantities sufficient to remove the necessity and save himself from death.

In this context, after listing the prohibited foods in the form of dead animals, blood, and pork, Allah Ta'ala says But if one is compelled by necessity, neither craving it nor transgressing, there is no sin on him; indeed, Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

On the basis of these and similar verse of the Qur'an, Islamic jurists formulated an important principle, namely, that "necessity removes restrictions. From this stipulation, jurists have derived another principle, that "The quantity permitted is determined by the magnitude of the necessity. In permitting the use of the haram under necessity, Islam is true to its spirit and general principles.

This spirit, which we find permeating its laws, is to make life easy and less oppressive for human beings, and to lift the burdens and yokes imposed by earlier systems and religions. True is the saying of Allah, the Almighty Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire hardship for you It is not Allah's desire to place a burden upon you, but He desires to purify you and to perfect His favor on you in order that you may be thankful.

Concerning food and drink of vegetable origin, the peoples of the earth have been close to a consensus. Islam does not prohibit vegetable foods, with the exception of what is fermented, whether it be grapes, dates, barley, or any other substance, as long as it remains in the unfermented state; similarly, Islam prohibits anything which intoxicates, affects the functioning of the brain, or harms the body, as we shall see later. However, with regard to foods derived from animal sources peoples and nations have held widely varying attitudes.

The Attitude of the Brahmins Toward Slaughtering Animals and Eating Meat The Brahmins and a group of philosophers, subsisting on vegetarian food, only prohibit to themselves the killing and eating of animals. They claim that the slaughtering of animals is a cruelty inflicted by men on these creatures, who are living beings like themselves and that they must not deprive the animals of their right to live.

However, when we ponder the creation, we realize that these animals have not been created for their own sake, because they have not been endowed with intellect or freedom of choice; we also see that their natural position is such that they have been subjected to the service of man.

It is therefore not to be doubted that man should benefit from their flesh after slaughter just as he benefits from their service while they are alive. Again, we realize that it is the law of Allah in His creation that the lower order of species be sacrificed for the benefit of the higher.

Moreover, even if a man refrains from slaughtering an animal, it will not thereby be saved from death and destruction; it will either become prey to some other animal or will die in some other way, possibly in a much more painful manner than by a quick stroke of a sharp knife. Animals Prohibited to the Jews and Christians Among the people possessing a religion based on a divinely revealed scripture, Allah prohibited to the Jews the eating of many land and marine animals; for a description of these one may refer to the Old Testment book of Leviticus, chapter eleven.

The Qur'an mentions some of the things which Allah prohibited to them, as we mentioned previously, to punish them for their transgressions and sins: And to the Jews We forbade every animal with claws, and of oxen and sheep We have forbidden them their fat, except what is carried on their backs or entrails or what is connected to the bone; thus did We recompense them for their rebelliousness, and indeed We speak the truth.

However, the Christians made permissible things which had been prohibited in the Torah, although not abrogated in the Injeel, or scripture revealed to Jesus peace be on him. The Christians followed the teachings of Paul, who declared all foods and drinks permissible with the sole exception of the flesh of animals sacrificed to idols, 1 Cor.

Trans since "to the pure everything is pure. Accordingly, Christians permitted to themselves the eating of pork, despite the fact that the text of the Torah prohibits it to this day. The Attitude of the Pre-Islamic Arabs The pre-Islamic Arabs prohibited certain animals as being unclean, together with some other animals which were considered sacred and dedicated to their gods; we have already mentioned bahirah, saibah, wasilah, and ham, which fall into the latter category.

In contrast to this, they permitted many kinds of impure foods, such as the flesh of dead animals and flowing blood. At one extreme every kind of meat was permitted and at the other all meat was prohibited. Then Allah addressed all human beings saying, O mankind! Eat of what is permissible and good on earth, and do not follow the footsteps of Satan; truly he is an open adversary to you.

Then Allah addressed the Believers in particular saying, O you who believe! Eat of the good things that We have provided for you, and be thankful to Allah if it is He alone whom you worship. Indeed, what He has forbidden to you is the flesh of dead animals and blood and the flesh of swine, and that which has been sacrificed to anyone other than Allah. He then explains that no food is haram to them except the four kinds mentioned in the ayah.

The same four kinds, with some further details, are mentioned at other places in the Qur'an: Say: I do not find in what is revealed to me anything prohibited to an eater in his food unless it be the flesh of that which is dead, or flowing blood, or the flesh of swine, for that is indeed foul, or the abomination which has been dedicated to anyone other than Allah. But if one is compelled by necessity, neither craving it nor transgressing, then, indeed, thy Lord is Forgiving, Merciful.

Similarly, what is sacrificed to idols falls into the category of that which is dedicated to anyone other than Allah. Accordingly, the foods which are prohibited fall into four broad categories which may be reclassified into ten detailed categories, as follows: The Prohibition of Eating What Is Dead and Its Wisdom 1. The first thing mentioned in these verses concerning prohibited foods is the flesh of "dead animals," that is, the beast or fowl which dies of natural causes, without being slaughtered or hunted by men.

There are obvious reasons for this prohibition: a. Eating the flesh of a dead animal is repugnant to civilized taste and is considered by thinking people in all societies to be contrary to human dignity. We also observe that all peoples possessing a revealed scripture have prohibited it and that they do not eat the flesh of an aunless it is slaughtered.

However, the methods of slaughter may vary. In whatever he does, the Muslim acts with a set purpose and; intention; he does not use a thing nor reap its benefit without directing his intention, aim, and effort toward it. The significance of slaughtering, which is a purposeful act, the intention of which is to take the life of the animal in order to use it as food, is to remove the slaughtered animal from the category of "dead animals.

If the animal died a natural death, it is quite likely that it died of some acute or chronic disease, through eating a poisonous plant, or other similar causes; hence eating its flesh would probably be harmful. The same is the case when the cause of death is old age or starvation. By prohibiting the flesh of a dead animal to human beings, Allah in His Mercy provides source of food to animals and birds, who, in the words of the Qur'an, constitute an ummah nation like themselves. The truth of this is demonstrated by the fact that the carcasses of animals lying out in the open are devoured by birds and animals.

This prohibition encourages the owner of an animal to guard it from disease and malnutrition lest it die and be wasted. Accordingly, in the case of disease, he will be quick to seek a cure for it or will hasten to slaughter the animal. The Prohibition of Flowing Blood 2. The second prohibition relates to flowing or liquid blood. It is not prohibited to eat the blood which remains in the flesh of the slaughtered animal after one has done his best to remove it.

Ibn Abbas was asked about the spleen and he replied, "You can eat it. He answered, "Only flowing blood is prohibited to you. During the period of jahiliyyah, a person who felt hungry might jab a bone or sharp object into the flesh of his animal, and collect and drink the flowing blood. It was concerning this that the poet al'Ashi said: Never approach animals that are dead, Nor take a sharp bone to pierce the live one.

Thus, since piercing the flesh of a living animal injures and weakens it, Allah Ta'ala prohibited such a practice. Pork 3. The third prohibited food is pork, that is, the flesh of swine. Since the pig relishes filth and offal, its meat is repugnant to persons of decent taste; moreover, recent medical research has shown that eating swine-flesh is injurious to health in all climates, especially hot ones.

Scientific research has also shown that pork carries a deadly parasite trichina , among others, and no one can say what science may discover in the future which will shed more light on the wisdom of this prohibition. Allah the Almighty spoke the truth in describing His Messenger, Muhammad peace be on him , as the one who "makes unlawful what is foul. When slaughtering an animal, the Arab polytheists would invoke the names of their idols, such as al-Lat or al-Uzza.

Such a practice is a devotional act addressed to someone other than Allah and is a form of worship in which His glorious name is not mentioned. In this case the reason for the prohibition is entirely related to faith: to safeguard the belief in the Oneness of Allah, to purify worship, and to fight shirk and polytheism in whatever form they may be expressed.

Indeed, it is Allah who created man and gave him control over everything on the earth, subjecting the animal to his power and permitting him to take its life for food on the condition that His name be pronounced at the time of slaughter. Pronouncing the name of Allah while slaughtering the animal is a declaration that one is taking the life of this creature by the permission of its Creator, while if one invokes any other name, he has forfeited this permission and must be denied the use of its flesh.

Types of Dead Animals The preceding are the four principal categories of prohibited animal foods. As revealed in the verse of Surh al-Maidah 3, to these four are added five more categories which pertain to further classifications of the "dead animal," as follows: 5. The strangled: an animal which has been strangled, for example, by a rope around its neck, or suffocated, as for instance by putting its head into something which produces suffocation.

The beaten: an animal which has been beaten to death by a club or similar object. The fallen: an animal which dies as a result of a fall from a high place, or by falling into a gully or ravine. The gored: an animal which dies as a result of being gored by the horns of another animal. That which has been partly eaten by wild beasts: an animal which has been partially devoured by wild animals and dies as a result.

After naming these five categories, Allah makes an exception of "that which you make lawful by slaughtering," meaning that if one comes upon such an animal while it is still alive, slaughtering renders it halal as food. The correct understanding of "still alive" is that some sign of life remains in it. If it is slaughtered while it still moves a leg, its tail, or an eye, it is halal Some jurists have said that there must be life in it, the signs of which are the flow of blood and reflex movements Reasons for the Prohibition of the Foregoing Categories We need not repeat the reasons stated in the preceding discussion concerning dead animals, with the possible exception of the danger to health, which is not clear in such cases.

However, we wish to emphasize again the significance of prohibitions 5 through 9 above. The All-Wise Law-Giver wants to teach people to be kind to the animal and to protect it from harm. One should not neglect it so that it can be strangled, fall from a high place, or be gored in a fight with other animals, nor torture it by severe beating, possibly resulting in its death, as vicious herdsmen, particularly hired ones, sometimes do, even goading animals such as two bulls or sheep to fight each other until one wounds or gores the other to death.

It is solely for this reason that Islamic jurists have prohibited the eating of the flesh of an animal which has been gored to death, even if it was wounded by the horns of the other and its blood has flowed; this prohibition holds even if the blood flowed from a wound in the usual site of slaughter, the throat. According to my understanding, the purpose behind this is to penalize the owner of such animals who has left them unattended to gore each other to death; he is not to be rewarded for this negligence by being permitted to make use of their flesh for food.

The reason for prohibiting the eating of animals partially devoured by wild beasts is to preserve human dignity; a Muslim is not to degrade himself by eating the leavings of animals. The people of the period of jahiliyyah were in the habit of eating what had been left by wild animals, wof sheep, camel or cow, but subsequently Allah prohibited this to the Believers.

Animal Sacrifices The tenth caof prohibited animal food is that which has been sacrificed to idols. During the period of jahiliyyah, stone altars stood in front of the idols around the Ka'aba, and the polytheists would slaughter animals on or close to these altars in order to seek nearness to the deities to which the altars were assigned.

Such immolation is similar to "that which has been dedicated to anyone other than Allah," as both involve the glorification of false deities. Since these altars were in the vicinity of the Ka'aba, it was possible to imagine that these sacrifices were meant to render homage to the Sacred House.

The Qur'an, through an explicit declaration, removed this possibility from the minds of people, classifying this practice in the same category as that which is dedicated to anyone other than Allah. The Exemption of Sea Food and Locusts The Islamic Shari'ah has exempted fish, whales, and other sea creatures from the category of "dead animals.

Reported by Ahmad and other compilers of the Sunnah. Says Allah Ta'ala: The game of the sea is permitted to you and so is its food They found a dead whale by the sea and subsisted on it for more than twenty days. On their return to Madinah, they told the Prophet peace be on him about this and he said, Eat the food which Allah has brought forth for you, and feed us from it if you have any left.

They then brought him some whale meat and he ate it. Reported by al-Bukhari. By the same token, locusts are exempted from the category of "dead animals. Said Ibn Abu Awfa, "We went with the Prophet peace be on him on seven expeditions, and we ate locusts with him. One can -in fact, one should -make use of its skin, horns, bones and hair, for throwing them away is a waste, and waste is not permitted.

Concerning this, Ibn 'Abbas narrated: The freed maid-servant of the Prophet's wife, Maymunah, was given a sheep, and it died. The Prophet peace be on him passed by its carcass and said, 'Why did you not take its skin to be tanned and use it?

He is reported to have said, "The tanning of the skin is its slaughtering," Reported by Abu Daoud and al-Nisai meaning that just as slaughtering makes the eating of the flesh of a sheep or cow halal, likewise tanning makes the use of the skin halal. He also said, "Tanning removes its impurity," Reported by al-Hakim.

And "If the skin is tanned, it is purified. The application of these latter ahadith is quite general, including the skin of the dog or the pig. Sawdah, the wife of the Prophet peace be on him , said "One of our sheep died, so we tanned its skin and used it as a waterskin, putting dates in it to sweeten the water. We used it until it wore out. Necessity Dictates Exceptions All the above-mentioned prohibitions apply in situations in which one has a choice.

However, in case of a necessity a different rule applies, as was discussed earlier. He has explained to you what He has made haram for you, except that to which you are compelled In such a situation a person may eat as much will satisfy his hunger and thus save himself from death.

Said Imam Malik, "The amount of it is what will alleviate his hunger, and he should not eat more than what will keep him alive. That hunger can be a compelling need is expressly mentioned in the Qur'anic ayah Some do not consider medicine to belong in the category of a compelling necessity like food, and in support of their position they cite the hadith: "Assuredly Allah did not provide a cure for you in what He has prohibited to you. Others consider the need for medicine equal to that of food, as both are necessary for preserving life.

In support of their position that prohibited food substances may be used as medicine, they argue that the Prophet peace be on him allowed 'Abd al-Rahman bin 'Awf and al-Zubair bin al-'Awwam to wear silk because they were suffering from scabies. The text of this hadith is quoted in the subsection of this book entitled "Clothing and Ornaments.

However, taking medicine containing some of the haram substances is permissible only under the following conditions: 1. The patient's life is endangered if he does not take this medicine. No alternative or substitute medication made from entirely halal sources is available. The medication is prescribed by a Muslim physician who is knowledgeable as well as God-fearing.

We may, however, add that on the basis of our own observations and the opinions of expert physicians, we have arrived at the conclusion that there hardly exists any medical necessity which requires ingesting what is haram, as for example, taking medicine.

Nevertheless, we have stated this principle in case a Muslim happens to be in a place where he cannot find medications other than those which contain haram substances. Necessity Does Not Exist if the Society Possesses Excess Food Consider a situation in which an individual does not have enough to eat but other people, Muslims or dhimmis, Dhimmis: non-Muslims living under the protection of an Islamic government. In such a case he does not fulfill the stipulation of being in a state of necessity and consequently haram foods do not becpermissible to him, for an Islamic community is like a single body supporting its members or like a fortified wall in which each brick strengthensthe other.

The concept of social solidarity is expressed very forcefully by the great jurist Imam Ibn Hazm, who said, The Muslim is not in a state of necessity such that it becomes permissible for him to eat the flesh of dead animals or swine as long as someone else, whether a Muslim or a dhimmi, has excess food. It is obligatory on the person having food to feed the one who is hungry, and that being the case, the hungry person is not compelled to resort to the flesh of dead animals or swine.

If the person having excess food denies it to him, he has a right to fight for it. If he the hungry person is killed, the killer is guilty of murder and consequently subject to qisas retaliation , while if he kills the denier of food he has dispatched him to the curse of Allah, as he denied him his right and was one of the rebellious. That is why Abu Bakr al-Siddiq fought against those who refused to pay zakat while professing to be Muslims.

Al-Muhalla by Ibn Hazm, vol. Marine animals, that is, those which live in water and cannot survive outside it, are all halal. It does not matter in what way they are obtained: whether they are taken out of the water dead or alive, whole or in pieces, whether they are fish or marine animals, whether they are called sea dogs or sea hogs, or whether they are caught by a Muslim or a non-Muslim.

The Most Generous Lord has opened wide His bounty upon His servants by permitting them to eat all marine animals, without the requirement of bleeding; man has been left free to catch them in whatever manner he is able, avoiding any unnecessary cruelty as far as possible. Reminding us of His favors, Allah Ta'ala says, And it is He Who has subjected the sea to you in order that you may eat fresh meat from it These prohibitions are explicitly mentioned in the text of the Qur'an, comprising, as we have seen, four major and ten minor categories.

At the same time, the Qur'an says concerning the Messenger of Allah peace be on him : He As an instance of this, on the day of the confrontation of Khaibar, the Prophet peace be on him forbade the eating of the flesh of domesticated donkeys. Concerning this hadith, it is said that the prohibition of eating donkeys was temporary and was due to an emergency, as donkeys were needed for riding. This is similar to a situation in which, due to a shortage of meat, a government may prohibit the slaughtering of young animals so they may grow bigger or the hunting of deer in a particular season, etc.

Another example of the same thing is provided by a hadith narrated by both al-Bukhari and Muslim, which states that the Prophet peace be on him "forbade the eating of any wild animals with a canine tooth and of any bird with talons. According to Ibn 'Abbas, nothing is haram other than the four categories mentioned in the Qur'an, while what the Prophet peace be on him forbade, such as beasts of prey, are to be regarded as makruh detestable rather than reaching the degree of haram.

Said Ibn 'Abbas: The people of the time of jahiliyyah ate certain foods and avoided others, according to their whim. Then Allah sent His Prophet peace be on him and revealed His Book, and He legislated what is permissible and what is prohibited. Accordingly, what He permitted is halal, what He prohibited is haram, and that concerning which He is silent is allowed.

Ibn 'Abbas then recited, Say: I do not find in what is revealed to me anything prohibited to an eater in his food. Say: I do not find in what is revealed to me anything prohibited to an eater in his food. On the basis of this ayah, Ibn 'Abbas argued that the flesh of domesticated donkeys is permissible. Imam Malik agrees with him on this matter, considering beasts of prey makruh rather than haram. The jurists agree that cutting the throat of a prohibited animal does not render it halal.

However, it then becomes permissible to use its skin without tanning it. The first consists of those animals which are tame or domesticated, such as camels, cows, goats, poultry, and other fowl which are raised on a farm or in the house, while untamed and wild animals are of the second type. In order to render their flesh halal, Islam requires that animals of the first category be slaughtered in the manner prescribed by Islam. The Conditions of Islamic Slaughtering According to the Shari'ah, the legal purification of the flesh of animals requires that the following conditions be met: 1.

The animal should be slaughtered by a sharp object which is capable of making it bleed by severing blood vessels, even if the sharp object is a stone or a piece of wood. We may find a sharp rock or a piece of wood or a reed.

The slaughtering is to be done by cutting the throat of the animal or by piercing the hollow of the throat, causing its death. The best way is to cut the windpipe, the gullet, and the two jugular veins. Some jurists have cited further conditions, but we have omitted them as we did not find explicit texts mentioning them.

The slaughtering of animals is known instinctively to all people, and to go into depth and detail concerning it does not accord with Islam, which keeps matters easy and simple. The more details these jurists have attempted to list, the more confusion they have caused; for example, is it necessary to cut all four parts -the windpipe, the gullet and the two jugular veins -or only some of them?

Should the knife point downward or upward? Can the hand be raised before the slaughtering is completed or not? However, if it becomes impossible to slaughter the animal in the specified manner, this second condition is cancelled; for example, the animal may have fallen headlong into a well so that its throat is inaccessible, or it may become wild and start kicking and running.

Such cases are treated in the manner of game animals and it is sufficient to wound the animal at any place to make it bleed. As the people did not have a horse, a man shot an arrow which struck the camel and wounded it. The Prop peace be on him said, 'Some of these animals are like wild beasts. If any of them behaves like this, treat it in this fashion.

No name other than Allah's should be mentioned over the animal at the time of slaughter; concerning this condition there is a consensus among all the jurists. The people of the time of jahiliyyah sought to propitiate their deities and idols by sacrificing animals to them, either by invoking their names while slaughtering or by immolating them on altars specified for them.

As mentioned previously, the Qur'an prohibited all this in the words, Forbidden to you are The name of Allah should be mentioned while slaughtering the animal. The correct manner of mentioning the name of Allah at slaughtering is, "Bismillah Allahu akbar" in the name of God, God is the most great. On this occasion the words al-Rahman al-Raheem the Compassionate, the Merciful do not follow Bismillah as they ordinarily do, since slaughtering is not an act of mercy.

This is clear from Qur'anic texts and ahadith. Allah Ta'ala says: Then eat of that over which the name of Allah has been mentioned, if you believe in His signs. Reported by al-Bukhari and others. This condition is further supported by other sound ahadith which state that Allah's name must be pronounced while hunting just before an arrow is shot or a hunting dog is sent for the chase. This point will be discussed later in the section on hunting.

Some scholars are of the opinion that although the name of Allah must be mentioned, it is not necessary to mention it at the time of slaughtering the animal; one can mention it at the time of eating, since in that case it cannot be held that it was eaten without mentioning the name of Allah over it. Shall we eat of it or not? The Wisdom of the Islamic Manner of Slaughtering The wisdom of the Islamic rules of slaughtering is to take the animal's life in the quickest and least painful way; the requirements of using a sharp instrument and of cutting the throat relate to this end.

It is forbidden to rend the throat by using teeth or nails since this will cause pain to the animal and is likely to strangle it. The Prophet peace be on him recommended sharpening the knife and putting the animal at ease, saying, Allah has ordained kindness or excellence in everything. If killing is to be done, do it in the best manner, and when you slaughter, do it in the best manner by first sharpening the knife and putting the animal at ease.

Reported by Muslim on the authority of Shaddad bin Aus. In another hadith narrated by Ibn'Umar, the Prophet peace be on him said, "When one of you slaughters, let him complete it," Reported by Ibn Majah. Ibn 'Abbas reported that once the Prophet peace be on him saw a man who was sharpening his knife after laying down a sheep to be slaughtered.

The Prophet peace be on him rebuked him saying, "Do you intend to make it die two deaths? Why did you not sharpen your knife before laying it down? He said, "Woe to you! Lead it to its death in a decent manner. Thus the main intent here is to be kind to the unfortunate animal and spare it unnecessary suffering insofar as this is possible. The people o f jahiliyyah were fond of cutting off the humps of live camels and the fat tails of live sheep in order to eat them.

In order to put a stop to this barbaric practice, the Prophet peace be on him forbade the eating of any part obtained in this fashion, saying, "Any part cut off a living animal is dead flesh," Reported by Ahmad, Abu Daoud, al-Tirmidhi, and al-Hakim.

The Significance of Mentioning Allah's Name Mentioning the name of Allah to purify the act of slaughtering has a subtle significance which we would do well to ponder. First, this practice is in opposition to the practice of the idolaters and the people of jahiliyyah, who mentioned the names of their non-existent deities while slaughtering animals. Since the polytheist mentions the name of a false deity, how can the Believer fail to mention the name of the true God? Second, these animals, like human beings, are creatures of Allah, and like them they have life.

How then can a man take control of them and deprive them of life unless he first obtains permission from his, and their, common Creator, to Whom everything belongs? Mentioning the name of Allah while slaughtering the animal is a declaration of this divine permission, as if the one who is killing the animal were saying, "This act of mine is not an act of aggression against the universe nor of oppression of this creature, but in the name of Allah I slaughter, in the name of Allah I hunt, and in the name of Allah I eat.

The polytheists of Arabia and other nations had made animal sacrifice an act of worship, or rather an integral part of their belief system and a pillar of their religion, seeking to propitiate their deities by sacrificing animals either at their special altars or by mentioning their names over them.

Now although the People of the Book -the Jews and Christians are essentially believers in one God, some Muslims nevertheless supposed that in matters related to food the People of the Book were to be treated in the same manner as idolaters. Thereupon Allah Ta'ala granted special permission to Muslims in the matter of eating with the People of the Book and in the matter of marriage to their women.

In Surah al-Maidah, the last surah of the Qur'an to be revealed, Allah says, Today whatever is good is made lawful to you. And the food of those who were given the Scripture before you is permitted to you and your food is permitted to them Since Allah did not prohibit it, the food of the Jews and the Christians is permitted to you on the basis of the original permissibility of things, and likewise you can share your food with them.

Accordingly, you can eat the flesh of the animals they have slaughtered or hunted, and they can eat what you have slaughtered or hunted. While Islam takes an uncompromising attitude toward polytheists, it is lenient toward the People of the Book, for they are closer to Muslims in their belief in divine revelation, prophethood, and other fundamentals of. Islam permits us to eat with them, to marry their women, and, in general, to have social relations with them. It may be that, by interacting with Muslims in an Islamic environment and observithe beliefs, practices, and characters of Muslims, they may come to realize that Islam is in truth their own religion but with a higher level of spirituality, a more perfect Shari'ah, and books of greater authenticity, That is, the Holy Qur'an, the books of Ahadith, and the Sirah biography of the Prophet.

The application of the phrase, "the food of those who were given the Scripture," is general and includes their meats, produce, and other foods. All of these are halal for us excepting what is haram in itself, e. Animals Slaughtered for Churches and Christian Festivals If one does not hear from a Christian or a Jew that a name other than Allah's such as that of Jesus or a saint, was mentioned at the time of slaughter, the meat he offers is halal. If, however, he says that a name other than Allah's has been mentioned, it is haram, according to the opinion of some jurists who argue that it falls under the heading of what has been dedicated to other than Allah.

Some others hold the opinion that the food of the People of the Book has been permitted to us by Allah, Who is aware of what they say when slaughtering an animal. Someone asked Abu al-Darda whether he could eat the flesh of a lamb, slaughtered for the Church of St. George, which had been given to him. Abu al-Darda answered, "O Allah, may You pardon us! Sementara itu, memiliki pikiran yang tenang juga akan membantumu terhindar dari hal-hal tidak baik seperti diantaranya stres, gangguan mental, hingga kesehatan fisik yang menurun.

Gombalan Buat Pasangan — Ketika mendengar kata-kata gombal pastinya akan membuat hubungan kamu dengan pasangan terlihat seru dan asyik. Selain itu, kamu juga mungkin ingin menyampaikan semua cinta yang ada di hati lewat gombalan. Terlebih lagi, kata-kata gombal untuk pacar juga dapat menjadi pilihan manis.

Mimpi Haid — Apakah Grameds pernah mimpi haid? Haid atau menstruasi atau datang bulan merupakan keluarnya darah dari vagina yang terjadi sebagai suatu dampak dari siklus bulanan seorang perempuan. Siklus tersebut menjadi bagian dari proses organ reproduksi perempuan dalam mempersiapkan kehamilan dan haid ini berlangsung secara alami. Alasan Berhenti Kerja — Resign adalah keadaan saat seseorang berhenti atau mengundurkan diri dari pekerjaannya saat ini dengan sukarela atau atas keingin dirinya sendiri.

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